Article Title: Translation and Adaptation of Simplifying Mental Illness plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES) Program.

Author(s): Mussarat Jabeen Khan & Syeda Shahida Batool

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol. 11, No.2, 22-27

Correspondence Address: Mussarat Jabeen Khan PhD Scholar Department of Psychology, GC. University Lahore. Email: Dr. Syeda Shahida Batool Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, GC. University Lahore


The current study aimed at translation and adaptation of Simplifying Mental Illness plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES) Program. It comprised of two phases: phase I was the translation and adaptation of SMILES Program, and Phase II was the pilot testing of the program. Translation and adaptation of SMILES Program comprised of six steps. Step I was forward translation of SMILES Program. Step II was the adaptation of SMILES Program. Step III was about determining the appropriateness of the adapted material with the consultation of experts and parents. In step IV Urdu translated material was analyzed by experts in ten committee meetings. Step V was the back translation of the SMILES Program. After receiving the back translations, the conceptual and linguistic equivalence between the back translated and the original SMILES Program was established in Step VI by following the committee approach. After adaptation of the entire program, it was pilot tested on a sample of ten offspring (children and adolescents) of depressed parents. Diagnosed depressed parents were taken from different hospitals; the diagnosis was reconfirmed by administering Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (Siddiqui & Shah, 1997). Parents had to rate their children on Child Problem Checklist (Tariq & Hanif, 2007). Knowledge questionnaire and Life Skill Questionnaire were filled by children themselves. Results showed that all scales were quite reliable. High positive correlation was found between original, forward translated (Urdu) and backward translated (English) versions of Knowledge Questionnaire (KQ) and Life Skill Questionnaire (LSQ). It was also evident that parental depression was positively correlated with behavioral problems of their children.

Keywords: Parental depression, behavioral problems, Simplifying Mental Illness plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES), Translation, Adaptation.