Posted on: 25 Jun 2019 Posted by: ppriad Comments: 0

Article Title: The Development of Third-person Effect Questionnaire and Media Exposure List in Local and Foreign Electronic Entertainment Media Context

Author(s): Aliya Abdul Hayee and Anila Kamal

Institute(s): National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2014, Vol. 29, No. 1, 53-77

Correspondence Address: Aliya Abdul Hayee, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail:


Present study attempts to develop the third-person effect questionnaire and media exposure list in the context of local and foreign electronic entertainment media. For this purpose the study was divided into three steps. In the first step, on the basis of existing literature of third-person effect and media exposure, six focus groups were conducted. As a result various themes were generated including beautification of religion, adults’ belief that media effect others more than themselves, and adolescents acceptance and idealization of foreign media. In step two, list of items were generated and sent for the experts review. After approval of reviewers, third-person effect questionnaire of 36 items and media exposure list of 16 items was finalized. Further, in third step psychometric properties were established by applying questionnaires on 328 adolescents and young adults. Content and construct validity was established. Gender, age, education, and media exposure differences were also found in third-person effect.

Keywords: Third-person effect, media exposure list, adolescents, young adults

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