Article Title: Role of Gender, Age, and Geographical Locality in Metacognitive Listening Skills of English as a Foreign Language
Author(s): Waseem Fayyaz and Anila Kamal
Institute(s): National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2014, Vol. 29, No. 2, 265-276
Correspondence Address: Waseem Fayyaz, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research in second language listening is inadequate with regard to impact of certain demographic variables such as gender, age, and geographical localities in a country. Role of these factors in listening of English as a foreign language was studied in present research. Three hundred and fourteen students of functional courses of English language of public and private language institutes filled in modified version (Fayyaz & Kamal, 2011) of Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (Vandergrift, Goh, Mareschal, & Tafaghodtari, 2006). Factorial analysis of variance showed that women were significantly higher on overall use of listening strategies, whereas participants belonging to different geographical locations were relatively equal on these strategies. No interaction effect was established between the three predicting factors. The findings are likely to have implications for research and teaching of English in Pakistan. However, modest effect size of relationships does not allow generalized conclusion.
Keywords: Listening skills, foreign/second language, metacognition, geographical locality