Article Title: Relationship of Epistemological Development with Wisdom, Age, Gender and Education

Author(s): Ghina Saleem, Syeda Salma Hasan& Waseem Fayyaz

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore; Gordon College, Rawalpindi

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2017, Vol. 15, No.1, 27-35

Correspondence Address: Dr. Syeda Salma Hassan, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, GC University, Kechery Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. E-mail:


The present study investigated the relationship of epistemological development with age, gender, education and wisdom. The data were collected from 150 participants through convenient sampling. The sample included 83 men and 67 women in the age range of 17- 55 years with undergraduate, graduate, and post graduate levels of educational qualification. Epistemological development scheme as proposed by Perry (1968) was taken as the basis for measuring stages of epistemological development. It was hypothesized that epistemological development levels will show a significant positive relationship with wisdom, age, educational qualification and gender. The results indicated significant positive relationship of epistemological development with age, education and wisdom. Gender showed no inverse relationship with epistemological development levels. Results of two-way ANOVA also showed significant main effect of gender and educational qualification. Age however did not yield significant main effect on epistemological development among adolescents (17-21 years), young adults (22-40 years) and middle aged adults (41-55 years). The results and suggestions are discussed in the light of existing literature.

Key-words: epistemological development, gender, age, education, wisdom.

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