Thesis Title:  Psychosocial Correlates of Deviant Behaviour among Adolescents

Author Name: Shahnila Mushtaq

Supervisor: Rukhsana Kausar

Year: 2018

Degree: PhD

Department: Institute of Applied Psychology

University: Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: chairperson@appsy.pu.edu.pk, Phone: 92-42-9231245

Abstract

The aim of the present research is to identify psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour in adolescents in Pakistan. The present research used mixed method approach and comprises of three different studies, each with its separate objectives.

The first study was designed to identify psychosocial factors of deviant behaviour in adolescents. It was qualitative in nature and initial pool of items was generated through interviews and focus group discussion (FGD). Data through interviews (n = 14) and for FGD (n = 9) was generated from the individuals who directly or indirectly had observed and dealt with adolescents with deviant behaviour. This study helped identify factors and generate items for the scale of psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour. Data revealed psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour in adolescents, such as, personal issues, social problems, lack of parental guidance and monitoring, communication gap between parents and adolescents, negative effect of media and unsupervised use of the internet.

In second study, the aim was to: examine psychometric properties of psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour scale; examine psychometric properties of self-constructed Deviant Behaviour Scale based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013) classification of behavioural problems. The sample comprised of 612 male adolescents (age range 13-19 years; M = 16, SD = 1.4) recruited from different Government schools and colleges. Data were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and reliability analysis to examine the psychometric properties of both scales.

Results revealed six factors of Psychosocial Correlates of Deviant Behaviour Scale, i.e., family related; social; psychological; moral values; biological and media related. All these factors showed high reliability. For Deviant Behaviour Scale, three factors emerged i.e. conduct disorder; intermittent explosive disorder and oppositional defiant disorder and all subscales showed high reliability. Data were further analyzed using correlation and regression analyses and results revealed significant positive relationship between psychosocial factors and deviant behaviour in adolescents.

Study 3, was carried out to identify the relationship between psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour, emotional immaturity, personality traits and deviant behaviour in adolescents. It was hypothesized that: there is likely to be relationship between psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour, personality traits and deviant behaviour; emotional immaturity is likely to mediate the relationship between psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour, personality traits and deviant behaviour. It was also hypothesized that psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour, personality traits and emotional immaturity will predict deviant behaviour in adolescents. There is likely to be significant differences between adolescents showing deviant and non-deviant behaviour on psychosocial correlates of deviant behaviour, personality traits, and emotional immaturity. Between group was used to collect data by selecting adolescents through extreme case method, that is, the upper and lower quartiles of the adolescents (scoring high and low on the deviant behaviour scale) from study two sample (n = 326, 155 showing deviant behaviour and 171 showing non-deviant behaviour). Indigenous Psychosocial Correlates of Deviant Behaviour Scale (Mushtaq & Kausar), Deviant Behaviour Scale (Mushtaq & Kausar, 2018), Big Five Inventory (BFI-10; Rammstedt & John, 2007) and Emotional Maturity Scale (Singh & Bharagava, 1999) were used for assessment. The data were analyzed using a series of independent sample t-tests, correlation analysis, regression analyses and structural equation modeling. Emotional maturity (relapse, social conflict, instability, personal breakdown and lack of independence) was found significant mediator between personality traits (openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism), psychosocial factors (parental factor, moral factor, psychological factor, social factor) and deviant behaviour. The findings of the present research is helpful in identifying adolescents at risk for developing deviant behaviour and thereby devising prevention and intervention plans for such adolescents by controlling the factors associated with deviant behaviour.

Keywords:

Psychosocial correlates, deviant behaviour, non- deviant behaviour, adolescents.

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