Article Title: Psychological Problems and its Association to Other Symptoms in Menopausal Transition
Author(s): Muhammad Aqeel, Khaula B. Arbab, and Tanvir Akhtar
Institute(s): Foundation University, Rawalpindi Campus, Rawalpindi.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2018, Vol. 33, No. 2, 507-519
Correspondence Address: Muhammad Aqeel, Foundation University, Rawalpindi Campus, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigated the association among stress, anxiety, and depression in menopause transition. Moreover, to assess how other menopausal symptoms contribute to elevate stress, anxiety, and depression in Pakistani women, 150 female participants (Premenopausal, n = 57; Perimenopausal, n = 33; Postmenopausal, n = 60) with menopausal complaints were recruited from various public and private hospitals, at their respective gynaecological wards in Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad, Pakistan, in 2015. Participants’ age ranged from 40 to 60 years (M = 47.44; SD = 5.40). Purposive-convenient sampling and a cross-sectional design were employed. Two instruments, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and Bradford Somatic Inventory (Mumford et al., 1991) were used to measure somatic symptoms, stress, anxiety, and depression in women with menopausal symptoms. Findings demonstrated that head symptom significantly positively predicted psychological problems such as stress and depression for women with perimenopause. Moreover, it also significantly positively predicted anxiety for postmenopausal women. Results also demonstrated that chest symptom significantly positively predicted psychological problems like anxiety for perimenopausal women. Results further revealed that fatigue symptom significantly positively predicted depression and stress in premenopausal women. Additionally, findings showed that panic symptoms significantly positively predicted anxiety and depression for postmenopausal women.
Keywords: Anxiety, depression, stress, somatic symptoms, menopausal transition