Article Title: Potentially Traumatic Events as Predictors of Vicarious Trauma in Adolescents

Author(s): Ayza Yazdani, Zainab F. Zadeh, and Khalida Shafi

Institute(s): Institute of Professional Psychology, Bahria University, Karachi Campus, 13 National Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2016, Vol. 31, No. 2, 531-548

Correspondence Address: Ayza Yazdani, B-30, Service Road, Sector E-8, Naval Complex, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: ayzayabid@gmail.com

Abstract

In the study, physical and emotional proximity of potentially traumatic events as predictors of vicarious trauma in adolescents were investigated. Visiting places after occurrence of bomb blasts was defined as physical proximity; while, emotional proximity was knowing a victim of a bomb blast or kidnapping. A purposive sample of 1074 adolescents aged 14-17 years was administered two measures; the Events Exposure Questionnaire developed by researcher and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (Weiss & Marmar, 1997). The second measure was used with modifications to time frame and mean scores calculated. Two hypotheses purported that physical and emotional proximity would predict PTSD in adolescents. Regression analysis was performed. Although, the models generated account for about 2-3% of variance for physical and emotional proximity, they added to extant research. Importance of peer group, media, and endemic characteristics of society were also found to play a role in the development of PTSD symptoms through indirect exposure to violence.

Keywords. Potentially traumatic events, indirect exposure, vicarious trauma, proximity, posttraumatic stress