Personal and Group Discrimination, Ethnic Identification and Self-Esteem of Ethnic Minority Students

Thesis Title: Personal and Group Discrimination, Ethnic Identification and Self-Esteem of Ethnic Minority Students

Author: Nazia Abdul Ghaffar

Supervisor: Mujeeba Ashraf

Year: 2017

Degree: MPhil

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: chairperson@appsy.pu.edu.pk, Phone: 92-42-9231245

Abstract

The present research studied the effects of perceived personal and group discrimination, ethnic identification on the self-esteem of the ethnic minority students in Lahore. The study was based upon the rejection identification model proposed by Branscombe, Schmitt and Harvey (1999). Therefore, it was hypothesized that perceived personal and group discrimination is negatively associated with self-esteem and perceived personal and group discrimination positively associated with ethnic identification. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that multiple aspect of ethnic identification (solidarity, satisfaction, centrality, self-stereotyping and in group homogeneity) mediate the relationship between perceived personal, group discrimination and self-esteem. It was also assumed that the perceived personal, group discrimination, ethnic identification and self-esteem differ among the students of different ethnic groups (i.e., Bloch, Pakhton and Sindh). The study was based upon the correlational research design. The sample was comprise of 200 ethnic minority students (Bloch = 62, Pakhton = 120 and Sindh = 18) with mean age of 21 years. Perceived Personal and Group Discrimination Scale (Bourguignon, Seron, Yzerbyt and Herman 2006), Multidimensional Measure of Group Identification (Leach et al., 2008) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) were used. Test of normality, Spearman-Brown Correlation, Multiple Hierarchical Regression for mediation analysis and one way ANOVA were used to measure the effect of perceived personal and group discrimination, ethnic identification and self-esteem among ethnic minority students. The results indicated that perceived personal discrimination and one aspect of ethnic identification (centrality) negatively predict self-esteem whereas group discrimination and ethnic identification (solidarity, satisfaction, self-stereotyping, and homogeneity) positively predict self-esteem. The findings of the present study revealed that centrality mediated the relationship between personal discrimination and self-esteem while the relationship between group discrimination and self-esteem is mediated via satisfaction, centrality, and homogeneity. Moreover, the results of the study specified that the students from Bloch ethnic group perceived greater personal discrimination as compare to students of other ethnic group and students belong to Pakhton group experienced higher level of perceived group discrimination, solidarity, satisfaction, stereotyping and homogeneity as compare to the other students of Bloch and Sindhi ethnic groups. The present study helps us to understand the effects of perceived personal and group discrimination, ethnic identification and self-esteem among ethnic minority students.

Keywords:

Personal discrimination, group discrimination, group identification, self esteem, ethnic minority, students.

 

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