Thesis Title: Perceived Barriers, Guilt, Intentions and Leisure Time Physical Activity: An Extension of Theory of Planned Behavior

Author Name: Ghulam Ishaq

Supervisor: Rafia Rafiq

Year: 2017

Degree: MS Health Psychology

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: chairperson@appsy.pu.edu.pk, Phone: 92-42-9231245

Abstract

Emotion and barriers are not incorporated in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the past (Conner, 2014). The current study was designed to address the sufficiency of this theory by analyzing the effect of guilt (anticipated and past guilt) and perceived barriers (lack of time, willpower, energy, resources and skills) on individual’s intentions to perform leisure time physical activity. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a negative relationship of perceived barriers (lack of time, energy, willpower, skills and resources) and past guilt with leisure time physical activity: attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and anticipated guilt is likely to have a positive relationship with leisure time physical activity. It was also hypothesized that there is likely to be an indirect effect of perceived barriers (lack of time, willpower, energy, resources and skills), attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norms and guilt (anticipated guilt and past guilt) on leisure time physical activity through intention. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that there is likely to be an indirect effect of guilt (past guilt and anticipated guilt), subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on leisure time physical activity through intentions, moderated by gender. Co-relational research design was used to examine the proposed hypotheses. The sample of this study was drawn conveniently and comprised of 158 male students and 142 female students with age range of 18-30 years (M = 24.13, SD = 2.21). Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire in Physical Activity (Gonzalez, Lopez, Macros & Rodriguez-Marin, 2012), The Barriers to being Physically Active Quiz (CDC, 1999), Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin, 1985) and Guilt Scale, (Wang, 2006) were used to assess the theory of planned behavior, perceived barriers of physical activity, leisure time physical activity, anticipated and past guilt respectively. The result showed that lack of time, energy, will power, skills and past guilt is negatively co-related with leisure time physical activity. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and anticipated guilt are positively co-related with leisure time physical activity. The mediation analysis revealed that intentions mediated between perceived barriers (lack of time and skills), attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, guilt (past guilt and anticipated guilt) and leisure time physical activity. The moderated mediation analysis showed the indirect effect of guilt (past guilt and anticipated guilt), subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on leisure time physical activity through intention and was moderated by gender. The study confirmed that the inclusion of guilt and perceived barriers further augmented the sufficiency of the TBP. The study has identified why in spite of intentions people don’t indulge in leisure time physical activity. This extended theory explains 57% variance in leisure time physical activity being attributed to perceived barriers, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and guilt. The result identified can help in construction of a questionnaire to verify the role of guilt and barriers in seeking leisure time physical activity. Furthermore, results of our study will help and guide health psychologist in helping people overcome barriers the face in seeking leisure time physical activity.

Keywords: Perceived barriers, guilt, intentions, leisure time physical activity, theory of planned behavior.

 

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