Article title: Parenting Practices and Well Being Outcome in Young Adulthood

Author(s): Khawer Bilal and Urooj Sadiq Sukaina Ali

Institute(s): COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore; Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol. 11, No.1, 84-87

Correspondence Address: Dr. Urooj Sadiq, Assistant Professor, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore. Email:


This research investigated the consequences of early parenting practices on well-being during adulthood. We hypothesized: a) parental care would be correlated with psychological well-being variables of psychological strain and self-esteem; and b) parental over-protection would be correlated with the variables of psychological well-being (psychological strain and self-esteem). For this purpose, we solicited 67 men and 83 women within an age range of 18 to 25(M=21.20, SD = 1.90). The Parental Bonding Instrument, (PBI: Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979), General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12; Goldberg, 1972) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE: Rosenberg 1965) were used to assess the early parenting practices, psychological strain and self-esteem, respectively. A Pearson Product Moment correlation of coefficient was calculated to assess the relationship among the variables. Results suggested that parental care was significantly negatively correlated with psychological strain (r=-.26, p < .01) and significantly positively correlated with self-esteem (r = .38, p < .01); whereas parental over- protection was significantly positively correlated with psychological strain (r = .30, p <.01) and significantly negatively correlated with self-esteem (r = -.34, p < .01). The findings indicated that parental affection, emotional warmth and empathy serve as a guard against psychological vulnerability for young adults and hence enhance their self-esteem, however, intrusion, and parental over-control develop a sense of worthlessness, low self-esteem and psychological strain among individuals.

Keywords: parenting, well-being, strain, self-esteem, young adults

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