Posted on: 20 Apr 2019 Posted by: ppriad Comments: 0

Article Title: Gender Differences in Character Strengths, Social Competence, and Peer Relations Among Pakistani and Russian University Students

Author(s): Aisha Zubair and Anila Kamal and Veronika Artemeva

Institute(s): National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2018, Vol. 33, No. 2, 607-626

Correspondence Address: Anila Kamal, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Email:


The present study attempted to examine the comparative gender differences in relation to character strengths, social competence, and peer relations among 558 university students of Pakistan and Russia including both men and women (age range = 20-29 years). Appraisal protocols of Brief Strength Test (Peterson, 2004), Social Competence Scale (Shahzad, 2001), and Index of Peer Relations (Hudson, 1996) were employed to assess major constructs of the study. Results showed that character strengths and social competence positively predicted peer relations in Pakistani and Russian samples. Findings also proposed that gender significantly moderates the relationship between character strengths and peer relations. Findings further indicated that overall women displayed more character strengths as compared to men across both samples. In addition, Pakistani women displayed better social competence as compared to men; whereas nonsignificant gender differences were found in Russian sample. On the contrary, Pakistani and Russian men displayed better peer relations as compared to women. Cross-cultural comparison revealed that Russian students were higher on the strengths of justice, temperance, and transcendence as well as social competence as compared to Pakistani students; conversely nonsignificant cultural differences were found on the strengths of wisdom, courage, and humanity. Similarly, there were nonsignificant cultural differences on peer relations.

Keywords: Character strengths, social competence, peer relations, university students

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