Article Title: Development of Interpersonal Difficulties Scale for University Students

Author(s): Sadia Saleem, Zubia Ihsan, and Zahid Mahmood

Institute(s): Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2014, Vol. 29, No. 2, 277-297

Correspondence Address: Sadia Saleem, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, C-II Johar Town, Lahore Pakistan. E-mail:


The current research explored the patterns of interpersonal difficulties among university students in Pakistani cultural context. In the first phase, 40 university students were interviewed individually to generate item pool of 69 interpersonal difficulties as experienced by them. After excluding duplication and repetition, the list of 61 items was piloted on 30 university students as a self-report measure of 5-point rating scale (Interpersonal Difficulties Scale). Finally, a stratified sample of 448 university students (49% men and 51% women) were given the final list of 61 items, Student Problem Checklist (Mahmood & Saleem, 2011), and a demographic form. Principal Component factor analysis yielded a six factor solution namely Dominated by Others, Low Self-confidence, Mistrust, Lack of Assertiveness, Lack of Boundaries, and Instability in Relationships. The scale found to have high internal consistency, convergent validity, and test- retest reliability. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of interpersonal difficulties for student counseling services.

Keywords. Interpersonal difficulties, university students, counseling, reliability