Article Title: Development of Fear Scale

Author(s): Rabia Farooqi, M. Asir Ajmal & Syeda Salma Hasan

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2014, Vol. 12, No.1, 17-25

Correspondence Address: Dr. Syeda Salma Hassan, Incharge and Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, GC University, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000, and Ms Rabia Farooqi E-mail: ,


The present study was conducted to develop a reliable and valid indigenous scale to assess the emotional phenomena of fear. A mixed approach design was used in this study. The sample comprised university undergraduate students within the age range of 21-26 years with a mean age of 22 years and the data was gathered using purposive sampling techniques. In the first phase of this study items were generated that provoke fear among undergraduate students, for this purpose 60 students were individually interviewed regarding the fear provoking objects and situations by employing interview protocol. On the basis of these interviews Fear Scale was developed. A pilot study was completed to assess the accuracy and comprehension of the scale. In the second phase, data was gathered from 300 male and 300 female students. The construct validity was determined through Factor Analysis. This process yielded three factors which were disgust, horror and anxiety; furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between these three factors. Moreover, Fear Scale showed high internal consistency of reliability i.e. 0.89. In conclusion, this newly developed scale is a valid and reliable indigenous measure of fear among undergraduate students of both genders.

Keywords: Fear Scale, undergraduate students, factors, reliability, validity