Article Title: Development and Validation of Submissive Behavior Scale for Women with Infertility in Pakistan

Author(s): Anila Sadaf Mubashir & Syeda Shahida Batool

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, GC University Lahore

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2018, Vol. 16, No.1, 10-17

Correspondence Address: Dr. Syeda Shahida Batool, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Government College University Lahore (Pakistan). Email:


The present study was conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure of Submissive Behavior Scale for Women with Infertility (SBS-WI). A mixed method approach was used to construct the scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run to explore the factor structure of the scale. The factorial validity of 21 items scale was determined on a sample of 215 women with primary infertility, of age range from 20-45 year (Mage = 31.03; SDage = 6.18).The sample was collected from private and government hospitals, and clinics of major cities of four provinces of Pakistan through a purposive sampling technique. The principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation method yielded a unidimensional factor solution, which collectively accounted for 43.91 percent variance retaining 20 items. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated the findings of the EFA. The sample for CFA comprised 210 women with primary infertility whose ages ranged between 20 and 45 year (Mage = 32.42, SDage = 5.49). A positive relationship with Submissive Behavior Scale (Allan & Gilbert, 1997) supported the convergent validity (r = .43, p = .01); and a negative relationship with Assertive Behavior Scale (Zahid, 2002) supported the divergent validity (r = -.57, p < .001) of the scale. Internal reliability of the scale was measured through Cronbach’s alpha = .92. Moreover, the test-retest reliability was measured with one month interval (r = .94, p < .001). The SBS-WI appeared as a propitious measure with good items homogeneity, internal consistency, and effective patterns of validity.

Keywords: scale development, submissive behavior, primary infertility, Pakistani women