Article title: Development and Validation of Adjustment Problem Scale for College/University Students

Author(s): Umm-E-Rubab Kazmi & Amina Muazzam

Institute(s): Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore College for Women University (LCWU)

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2017, Vol. 15, No.1, 20-26

Correspondence Address: Umm E Rubab Kazmi, Lecturer, Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore College for Women University (LCWU) Jail Road, E-mail:


The present study aims to identify the phenomenology of adjustment problems in college/university students. To achieve this objective, the study comprised three phases. In phase I, the phenomenology of adjustment problems was explored through semi structured interviews with campus counsellors and students (N= 8). Three focus groups (N=16) were conducted to generate comprehensive pool of item. Reported problems were compiled in the form of list. Content validity of Adjustment Problem Scale (APS) was established through experts’ (campus counsellors and senior educationists) ratings (N=10). Pilot study was conducted on student sample (N=50) to check the ease of understanding. In phase II, construct validity was established through factor analysis (N=362). Four factors emerged and were named as Interactional Problems, Educational Problems, Fear of being Ridiculed and Psychological/Personal Problems with alpha coefficients of .86, .78, .80 and .70 respectively. In Phase III, psychometric properties of APS were established (N=200). Convergent validity of APS was determined with College Adjustment Test (Hasan & Kazmi, 2014) (r=.46, p<.01). Discriminant validity of APS was established with Psychological Resilience Scale (Jawahir & Kazmi, 2013) (r=-.21, p<.01). Test retest reliability (N=100) was significant (r=.91, p<.01) with two weeks interval. APS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing adjustment problems of college/university students in Pakistan.

Key words: phenomenology, adjustment and resilience.