Article Title: Development and Preliminary Validation of Peer Pressure Assessment Scale (PPAS) for Pakistani Adolescents

Author(s): Wjiha Mahmood, Sultan Shujja and Mohsin Atta

Institute(s): University of Sargodha University of Management and Technology, Lahore

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol. 11, No.1, 36-41

Correspondence Address: Sultan Shujja PhD Scholar, Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: sultan_shujja@yahoo.com

Abstract

The present research was conducted to develop an indigenous scale to measure peer pressure for adolescents (14-18 years). Behaviors exhibited due to peer pressure were identified using theoretical and empirical methods. During behaviors generation phase, 161 behaviors were generated with the help of existing literature, experts, university students, adolescents. A team of researchers selected behaviors representing peer pressure after careful scrutiny. Repeated, overlapping, age-wise inappropriate behaviors were discarded and 58 behaviors were transformed into items by researchers. The response format selected for Peer Pressure Assessment Scale (PPAS) was: Never (1), Sometimes (2), Seldom (3) and Always (4). For empirical evaluation, sample comprising 207 adolescents (118 girls and 89 boys) was conveniently drawn from government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation provided two factors solution and 29 items were finally retained using .4 factor loading criterion for Peer Pressure Assessment Scale (PPAS) with two subscales; Destructive influence of peer pressure (22 items) and Constructive influence of peer pressure (7items) respectively. Item analysis and alpha reliability revealed high internal consistency for PPAS (α=.84) and its subscales. Initial Scoring procedure was devised by analyzing percentile scores and discriminated among high, moderate and low peer pressure. There was no gender difference in experiencing peer pressure that is why no separate cutoff scores were determined. Findings are discussed in the light of indigenous cultural knowledge.

Keywords: indigenous cultural knowledge, peer pressure, adolescents, empirical method