Thesis Title: Counterfactual Thinking, Distress Tolerance and Resilience in University Students
Author Name: Uzma Hameed
Supervisor: Saadia Dildar & Rukhsana Kausar
Department: Institute of Applied Psychology
University: Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
The current cross sectional correlational study explored the relationship between counterfactual thinking, distress tolerance and resilience in university students. The sample of the study consisted of 200 students with 74 men and 126 women, recruited from 5 different departments of University of the Punjab, Lahore. It was hypothesized that counterfactual thinking will significantly predict distress tolerance and resilience in university students. There is likely to be positive relationship between counterfactual thinking, distress tolerance and resilience. The data were collected through different psychological instruments including Counterfactual Thinking for Negative Event Scale (Rye, Cahoon, Ali & Daftery, 2008), Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005) and State-trait Resilience Scale (Hiew, 2007). The finding showed counterfactual thinking has non-significant negative relationship with distress tolerance and state resilience and non-significant positive relationship with trait resilience and total resilience. Distress tolerance has non-significant positive relationship with state resilience and total resilience. Distress tolerance has non-significant negative relationship with trait resilience. Furthermore, findings revealed that counterfactual thinking significantly positively predicted distress tolerance and total resilience after controlling socio-demographics i.e. family income, experience of trauma, gender and family system. The findings implicated to help individual to cope better with negative experiences and stressful life situations and enhance resilience.
Counterfactual thinking, distress tolerance, state resilience, trait resilience.