Article Title: Attitude Towards Menstruation, Social Adjustment, and Mood States During Menstruation Among Young Women

Author(s): Afsheen Anjum and Humaira Jami

Institute(s): National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2018, Vol. 33, No. 2, 591-606

Correspondence Address: Afsheen Anjum, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Email:


The present study was aimed to explore the relationship between attitude, social adjustment, and mood states related to menstruation among female students. Sample comprised of 317 girls (age range 18 to 26 years) taken from different colleges and universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Attitude towards Menstruation Scale (Aflaq & Jami, 2012), Social Adjustment Scale (Weissman & Paykel, 1974), and Mood States Scale (Terry, Lane, Lane, & Keohane, 1999) were used to measure variables of the study for which satisfactory alpha reliabilities were achieved. Findings based on correlation confirmed the assumption that social adjustment during menstruation had significant positive relationship with attitude towards menstruation and significant negative relationship with mood states that is poor mood during menstruation is related to poor adjustment. Mood states were also significant negative correlation with attitude towards menstruation that is better attitude is linked with better mood states during menstruation. Mediation analysis indicated that attitude towards menstruation was a significant predictor of social adjustment, while, mood state acted as a mediator between this relationship. Based upon findings, in future intervention plans focusing at attitude and mood states related to menstruation to enhance social adjustment during this phase can be designed.

Keywords: Menstruation, menarche, mood states, social adjustment, attitudes